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Member’s Access Modifiers

Below is a summary of the principle characteristic of the access and non-access modifiers used in class declarations.


  • All classes regardless of package can access the member.


  • Can only be accessed from within own class.
  • A private member is invisible to any code outside its own class.
  • A subclass cannot inherit a private member.
  • You can declare a member of the same name in a subclass but it is not overridden.
  • You can only override methods that can be inherited.

package default:

  • Can be accessed by classes of the same package.
  • Becomes private to classes in other packages.


  • Accessed by same package and by subclasses in other packages.
  • Respects the inheritance concept.
  • The inherited protected member becomes private to all other classes in the subclasses package.

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